An Australian story: Paramedic education and practice in transition

Kylie O’Brien, Amber Moore, David Dawson, Peter Hartley

Abstract


In Australia, western medicine and the majority of allied healthcare professions are regulated via statutory regulation. For most of these allied healthcare professions, education has moved into the higher education (HE) sector and universities. The profession of paramedics is undergoing a transition in terms of scope of practice, and in particular education, moving from a post-employment model characterised by on-the-job training, to a pre-employment model, essentially full time university-based Bachelor degree education, similar to the change that occurred in nursing in Australia many years ago. How to produce work-ready graduates in the healthcare professions is of concern for educators and professional associations. Research into work-readiness in several healthcare fields has yielded important information that may be utilised by paramedic and other allied healthcare educators to improve courses. This paper discusses issues of transition of HE healthcare graduates into the workforce that need to be considered by educators, with a particular focus on the profession of paramedics in Australia. It also summarises key findings of research into work-readiness in a range of healthcare professions.

Keywords


Education; paramedics; transition; work readiness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baer, HA. The drive for legitimation by osteopathy and chiropractic in Australia: between heterodoxy and orthodoxy. Complementary Health Practice Review 2006; 11(2): 77.

Cameron, M. A comparison of osteopathic history, education, and practice in Australia and the United States of America. Australian Osteopathic Medicine Review 1998; 2(1): 6-12.

(RACGP) Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Australian General Practice – A Celebration. Available at: http://www.racgp.org.au/history/celebration (accessed 4 March 2012).

Bojanic, K, Schears, GJ, Schroeder, DR, Jenkins, SM, Warner, DO, & Sprung, J. Survey of self-assessed preparedness for clinical practice in one Croatian medical school. BMC Research Notes 2009; 2: 152.

Blumenthal, D, Gokhale, M, Campbell, EG, Weissman, JS. Preparedness for clinical practice: reports of graduating residents at academic health centres. JAMA 2001; 286(9): 1027-1034.

Dean, SJ, Barratt, AL, Hendry, GD, Lyon, PMA. Preparedness for hospital practice among graduates of a problem-based, graduate-entry medical program. Medical Journal of Australia 2003; 178(4): 163-166.

Hill J, Rolfe I, Pearson S, Heathcote A. Do junior doctors feel they are prepared for hospital practice? A study of graduates from traditional and non-traditional medical schools. Medical Education 1998; 32: 19-24.

Hart, AM, & Macnee, CL. How well are nurse practitioners prepared for practice: Results of a 2004 questionnaire study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 2007;19(1): 35-42.

Moore, A, O’Brien, K, Canaway, R. Chinese medicine students’ preparedness for clinical practice: an Australian survey. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2010; 16(7): 733-743.

Ambulance Services Act (Victoria) 1986. Available at: http://corrigan.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/asa1986176/ [accessed 29 Oct 2013]

Ambulance Services Amendment Bill 1998. Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/bill/asb1998266/ [accessed 29 Oct 2013]

(CAA) Council of Ambulance Authorities. Discussion Paper for the Review of the Report on Government Services. Council of Ambulance Authorities Inc. 2009. Available at: http://caa.net.au/images/stories/CAA_submission_Review_RoGS_July_2009.pdf [accessed 4 March 2012]

Willis E, Pointon T, O’Meara P, McCarthy C, Lazarsfeld Jensen A. Paramedic education: developing depth through networks and evidence-based research. ALTC Final Report 2009. Available at: http://www.acap.org.au/index.php

Edwards, D. Paramedic preceptor: work readiness in graduate paramedics. The Clinical Teacher 2011; 8: 79-82.

Dawson D. Evaluation of the Bachelor of Health Science (Paramedic) degree program at Victoria University. 2008. Masters Thesis, University of Melbourne.

(CAA) Council of Ambulance Authorities. (2010). Guidelines for the Assessment and Accreditation of Entry-level Paramedic Education Programs, Council of Ambulance Authorities Inc. Available at: http://www.caa.net.au/images/stories/PEPAP_Guidelines_Reviewed_MAY_2010.pdf [accessed 20 February 2012]

Position Statement. Council of Ambulance Authorities. Available at: http://www.caa.net.au/index.php/education/caa-position-statement

(CAA) Council of Ambulance Authorities. (2010). Paramedic Professional Competency Standards V.2 June 2010. Council of Ambulance Authorities Inc. Available at: http://www.caa.net.au/images/stories/ppcs.pdf [accessed 20 February 2012]

Arkoudis S, Yu X, Borland H, Chang S, Lang I, Lang J, Pearce A, Watty K. Finding Common Ground: Enhancing Interaction Between Domestic and International Students. 2010. Available at: http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/research/projectsites/enhancing_interact.html [accessed 10 Jan 2012]

Hettich, P. Transition processes from college to career. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association (108, August 4-8, 2000, Washington, DC). Available at: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED447368 [accessed 5 March 2012]

Arena G, Kruger E, Holley D, Millar S, Tennant M. Western Australian dental graduates’ perception of preparedness to practice: a five year follow-up. Journal of Dental Education 2007; 71(9): 1217-1222.

Jones, M, McIntyre, J, Naylor, S. Are physiotherapy students adequately prepared to successfully gain employment? Physiotherapy 2010; 96: 169-175.

Hodgetts, S, Hollis, V, Triska, A, Dennis, S, Madill, H, & Taylor, E. Occupational therapy students’ and graduates’ satisfaction with professional education and preparedness for practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2007; 74(3): 148-160.

Waxman A, Williams B. Paramedic pre-employment education and the concerns for our future: what are our expectations? Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care 2006; 4(4).

Sutton, G, Griffin, MA. Transition from student to practitioner: the role of expectations, values and personality. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2000; 63(8): 380-388.

Brennan, N, Corrigan, O, Allard, J, Archer, J, Barnes, R, Bleakley, A, Collett, T, Regan de Bere, S. The transition from medical student to junior doctor: today’s experiences of tomorrow’s doctors. Medical Education 2010;, 44: 449-458.

Murphy, GA, & Calway, BA. Professional development for professionals: beyond sufficiency learning. Australian Journal of Adult Learning 2008; 48(3): 424-444.

Landrum, RE, Harrold, R, Schaeffer, G, Epting, K, Zinn, T Buskist, et al. Faculty Forum. Teaching of Psychology 2003; 30(2): 131-153.

Prince, KJAH, Van de Wiel, MWJ, Van der Vleuten, CPM, Boshuizen, HPA, Scherpbier, AJJA. Junior doctors’ opinions about the transition from medical school to clinical practice: a change of environment. Education for Health 2004; 17(3): 323-331.

Cave, J, Woolf, K, Jones, A, Dacre, J. Easing the transition from student to doctor: how can medical schools help prepare their graduates for starting work? Medical Teacher 2009; 31: 403-408.

Eley, DS. Postgraduates’ Perceptions of Preparedness for Work as a Doctor and Making Future Career Decisions: Support for Rural, Non-traditional Medical Schools. Education for Health 2010; 23(10): 1-13.

Doherty, G, Stagnitti, K, & Schoo, AM. From student to therapist: Follow up of a first cohort of Bachelor of Occupational Therapy students. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 2009; 56: 341–349.

Bleakley, A, & Brennan, N. Does undergraduate curriculum design make a difference to readiness to practice as a junior doctor? Medical Teacher 2011; 33: 459-467.

Godefrooij, MB, Diemers, AD & Scherpbier, AJ. Students perceptions about the transition to the clinical phase of a medical curriculum with preclinical patient contacts; a focus group study. BMC Medical Education 2010; 10: 28.

Robertson, LG, & Griffiths, S. Graduates reflections on their preparedness for practice. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2009; 72(3): 125-132.

Busari, JO, Verhagen, EAA, Muskiet, FD. The influence of the cultural climate of the training environment on physicians’ self-perception of competence and preparedness for practice. BMC Medical Education 2008; 8: 51.

Greenwood, E. Attributes of a profession. Social Work 1957; 2(3): 45-55.

Kilminster S, Zuka M, Quinton N, Roberts T. Preparedness is not enough: understanding transitions as critically intensive learning periods. Medical Education 2011; 45: 1006–1015.

Kelly, C, Noonan, CL, Monagle, JP. Preparedness for internship: a survey of new interns in a large Victorian Health Service. Australian Health Review 2011; 35: 146–151.

Moore, A, & O’Brien, K. Confidence in clinical practice of Chinese medicine degree graduates one year after graduation: a pilot study. Journal Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2012; 18(3): 1–11.

Tsang, A K L. Students as evolving professionals – student perceptions of the evolving professional (EP) concept as a professional socialisation approach. Conference paper submitted to the AARE Conference 2009 Canberra.

Fisher, JW, Thompson, BM, Garcia, AD. Integrative clinical experience: an innovative program to prepare for internship. Teaching & Learning in Medicine 2007; 19(3): 302-307.

Frei, E, Stamm, M, Buddeberg-Fischer, B. Mentoring programs for medical students – a review of the PubMed literature 2000-2008. BMC Medical Education 2010; 10: 32.

Cleary, M, Matheson, S, Happell, B. Evaluation of a transition to practice programme for mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2009; 65(4): 844-850.

Almada, P, Carafoli, K, Flattery, JB, French, DA. & McNamara, M. Improving the retention rate of newly graduated nurses. Journal Nurses Staff Development 2004; 20 (6): 268–273.

Harrison, TM, Stewart, S. Clinical focus program: enhancing the transition of senior nursing students to independent practice. Journal Nursing Administration 2007; 37(6): 311-317.

Theobald, K, Mitchell, M. Mentoring: improving transition. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 2002; 20(1): 27-33.

Sangole, AP, Abreu, BC, Stein, F. Mentoring review and reflections. Occupational Therapy in Health Care 2006; 20(1): 1-16.

Wilding, C, Marais-Strydom, E, Teo, N. Mentorlink: empowering Occupational Therapists through mentoring. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 2003; 50(4): 259-261.

(CAA) Council of Ambulance Authorities Inc. Submission to the Australian Government: Department of Education, Science, and Training. Review of the impact of the Higher Education Support Act 2003; Funding cluster mechanism (including funding of clinical disciplines). Pipeline arrangements for funding of a new Commonwealth supported places. Discussion paper 2006. Available at: http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/2F515244-5225-4DFF-BE37-1898BF1F9C7D/15848/048TheCouncilofAmbulanceAuthoritiesRevised.pdf [accessed 19 March 2012]

Council of Ambulance Authorities Professional Competency Standards Version 2.2 Paramedics. February 2013. Available at URL: http://www.caa.net.au/attachments/article/91/paramedics_professional_competency_standards_V2.2_20 Feb 2013

O’Brien, K, Hartley, P, Dawson, D, & Moore, A. Work readiness of final year paramedic students at Victoria University: a survey. Accepted for publication Australasian Journal of Paramedicine 2013.

Levett-Jones, T, Gersbach, J, Arthur, C, & Roche, J. Implementing a clinical competency assessment model that promotes critical reflection and ensures nursing graduates’ readiness for professional practice. Nurse Education in Practice 2011; 11: 64-69.

Walker, A, Yong, M, Pang, L, Fullarton, C, Costa, B, & Dunning, A. Work readiness of graduate health care professionals. Nurse Education Today 2013; 33(2): 116-122.

McCall, L, Wray, N, & Lord, B. Factors affecting the education of pre-employment paramedic students during the clinical practicum. Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care 2009; 7(4).

O’Meara, P, Tourle, V, Madigan, V, & Lighton, D. Getting in touch with paramedic student career intentions. Health Education Journal 2011:1-10.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33151/ajp.11.3.14

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




The Official Journal of Paramedics Australasia © 2019                           ISSN: 2202-7270

 

Crossref Member Badge