Facilitating Rapport through Real Patient Encounters in Health Care Professional Education

Linda Ross

Abstract


Background

Establishing rapport is central to any health care professional-patient encounter. Developing a positive relationship with a patient enables the health care practitioner to elicit pertinent information and make informed clinical decisions about their treatment. This consequently leads to greater patient adherence, satisfaction and ultimately outcomes. As interpersonal communication and building patient rapport is integral to patient care it is imperative that the teaching of these skills be included in undergraduate and continuing health care professional education. The objective of this narrative review was to analyse the literature pertaining to health care professionals learning and developing interpersonal communication and rapport building skills through encounters with ‘real patients’.

Methods

In April 2013 a search was conducted using the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC. The search was limited to articles from peer-reviewed journals, conference papers and abstracts published between 1998 –2013 and written in English. Articles identified were assessed against the inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Results

An initial search located 6549 articles. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria seven articles were included in this review. A synthesis and subsequent examination of the extracted data revealed positive results in regard to incorporating ‘real patients’ into interpersonal communication skills and practitioner-patient relationship teaching and learning. Some studies measured actual improvement in behaviour and skills whilst others offered self-reported data on participant perceptions of their skills

Conclusion

Training interventions involving ‘real patients’ that are designed to foster interpersonal communication, interviewing skills, practitioner-patient relationships and rapport building are achievable and beneficial for student and practicing health care professionals. Any conclusions drawn from this review however must remain preliminary until such time as more high-level research becomes available.


Keywords


Rapport; undergraduate students; interpersonal communication; real patients; healthcare

Full Text:

PDF

References


Leach MJ. Rapport: a key to treatment success. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005;11(4):262-5.

O'Toole G. Communication: Core interpersonal skills for health professionals. Chatswood NSW: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

Barnett PB. Rapport and the hospitalist. Am J Med. 2001;111(9):31-5.

Norfolk T, Birdi K, Walsh D. The role of empathy in establishing rapport in the consultation: a new model. Med Educ. 2007;41(7):690-7.

Rosenzwelg S. Emergency rapport. J Emerg Med. 1993;11(6):775-8.

Arnold EC, Boggs KU. Interpersonal Relationships: Professional Communication Skills For Nurses. Missouri USA: Saunders; 2010.

Egnew TR, Wilson HJ. Faculty and medical students’ perceptions of teaching and learning about the doctor–patient relationship. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;79(2):199-206.

Hook KM, Pfeiffer CA. Impact of a new curriculum on medical students' interpersonal and interviewing skills. Med Educ. 2007;41(2):154-9.

Clever SL, Dudas RA, Solomon BS, Yeh HC, Levine D, Bertram A, et al. Medical student and faculty perceptions of volunteer outpatients versus simulated patients in communication skills training. Acad Med. 2011;86(11):1437-42.

Hojat M, Louis DZ, Markham FW, Wender R, Rabinowitz C, Gonnella JS. Physicians' empathy and clinical outcomes for diabetic patients. Acad Med. 2011;86(3):359-64.

Del Canale S, Louis DZ, Maio V, Wang X, Rossi G, Hojat M, et al. The relationship between physician empathy and disease complications: an empirical study of primary care physicians and their diabetic patients in parma, italy. Acad Med. 2012;87(9):1243-9.

Deveugele M, Derese A, De Maesschalck S, Willems S, Van Driel M, De Maeseneer J. Teaching communication skills to medical students, a challenge in the curriculum? Patient Educ Couns. 2005;58(3):265.

Turan S, Elcin M, Uner S, Odabasi O, Sayek I, Senemoglu N. The impact of clinical visits on communication skills training. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;77(1):42-7.

Duffy FD, Gordon GH, Whelan G, Cole-Kelly K, Frankel R. Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: the Kalamazoo II report. Acad Med. 2004;79(6):495-507.

Bakić-Mirić M, Bakić M. Successful doctor-patient communication and rapport building as the key skills of medical practice. Facta Univers. 2008;15(2):74-9.

Stephenson A, Higgs R, Sugarman J. Teaching professional development in medical schools. The Lancet. 2001;357(9259):867-70.

Aspegren K. BEME Guide No. 2: Teaching and learning communication skills in medicine-a review with quality grading of articles. Med Teach. 1999;21(6):563-70.

Wind LA, Van Dalen J, Muijtjens AM, Rethans JJ. Assessing simulated patients in an educational setting: the MaSP (Maastricht Assessment of Simulated Patients). Med Educ. 2004;38(1):39-44.

Spencer J, McKimm J. Patient Involvement in Medical Education. Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory and Practice. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.

Jha V, Quinton ND, Bekker HL, Roberts TE. Strategies and interventions for the involvement of real patients in medical education: a systematic review. Med Educ. 2009;43(1):10-20.

Bokken L, Rethans J-J, Jöbsis Q, Duvivier R, Scherpbier A, van der Vleuten C. Instructiveness of real patients and simulated patients in undergraduate medical education: a randomized experiment. Acad Med. 2010;85(1):148-54.

Spencer J, Blackmore D, Heard S, McCrorie P, McHaffie D, Scherpbier A, et al. Patient‐oriented learning: a review of the role of the patient in the education of medical students. Med Educ. 2000;34(10):851-7.

Osler W. The hospital as a college. Aequanimatus, and other addresses. London: HK Lewis; 1905.

Oxman AD, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Group E-BMW. Users' guides to the medical literature. JAMA. 1994;272(17):1367-71.

Buckley S, Coleman J, Davison I, Khan KS, Zamora J, Malick S, et al. The educational effects of portfolios on undergraduate student learning: A Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review. BEME Guide No. 11. Med Teach. 2009;31(4):282-98.

Scavenius M. Genesis of the professional−patient relationship in early practical experience: qualitative and quantitative study. Med Educ. 2006;40(10):1037-44.

Norgaard B, Ammentorp J, Kyvik KO, Kofoed P-E. Communication Skills Training Increases Self-Efficacy of Health Care Professionals. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2012;32(2):90-7. English.

Meili R, Fuller D, Lydiate J. Teaching social accountability by making the links: qualitative evaluation of student experiences in a service-learning project. Med Teach. 2011;33(8):659-66. English.

Parle M, Maguire P, Heaven C. The development of a training model to improve health professionals' skills, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies when communicating with cancer patients. Soc Sci Med. 1997;44(2):231-40.

Norfolk T, Patterson F. Developing the personal competencies of GP registrars: new training modules. London: City University; 2004.

Towle A, Bainbridge L, Godolphin W, Katz A, Kline C, Lown B, et al. Active patient involvement in the education of health professionals. Med Educ. 2010;44(1):64-74.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33151/ajp.10.4.50

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


The Official Journal of Paramedics Australasia © 2019                           ISSN: 2202-7270

 

Crossref Member Badge