Learning approach and trait anxiety on paramedic and nursing students

Yasin Uzuntarla



Learning approach and anxiety are important factors in the quality of education. This study was carried out to measure learning approach and trait anxiety levels on paramedic and nursing students.


This cross-sectional study – undertaken between July and December 2016 – aimed to evaluate paramedic and nursing students studying in Ankara in Turkey. A survey system was used for data collection utilising the Revised Two Factor Study Process Questionnaire and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory methods. The SPSS statistical package program was used to analyse the data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Mann Whitney-U test, the t-test, Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis.


It was determined that students preferred deep learning; over half of the students were observed to demonstrate lower anxiety levels using this method. As a sub-dimension of surface learning, surface motive was more expressively preferred by the paramedic students. Statistically, no significant relationship was observed between study process and trait anxiety.


Developing deep learning education systems and creating an environment to reduce anxiety is beneficial to students. Further research should be undertaken to determine the relationship between learning approach, socio-demographic characteristics and anxiety.


paramedic; nurse; student; learning approach; trait anxiety

Full Text:



Yardimci F, Bektas M, Ozkutuk N, Muslu GK, Gerceker GO, Basbakkal Z. A study of relationship between the study process, motivation resources, and motivation problems of nursing students in different educational systems. Nurse Educ Today 2017;48:13–8.

Entwistle N, McCune V. The conceptual bases of study strategy inventories. Educ Psychol Rev 2004;16:325–45.

Dart BC, Burnett PC, Purdie NM, Boulton-Lewis G, Campbell J, Smith D. Students’ conceptions of learning, the classroom environment, and approaches to learning. J Educ Res 2000;93:262–70.

Marton F, Säljö R. On qualitative differences in learning: I- outcome and process. Br J Educ Psychol 1976;46:4–11.

Ekinci N. The relationship between approaches to learning and self-efficacy beliefs of candidate teachers. Hacettepe University Journal of Education 2015;30:62–76.

Gordon C, Debus R. Developing deep learning approaches and personal teaching efficacy within a preservice teacher education context. Br J Educ Psychol 2002;72:483–511.

Biggs J. The study process questionnaire SPQ: Manual. Hawthorn, Vic.: Australian Council for Educational Research. 1987.

Ali S, Khan HF. Impact of combined modular assessment on deep learning and personal development of medical students. Pak J Med Sci 2016;32:191–5.

Clark DA, Beck AT. The anxiety & worry workbook: the cognitive behavioral solution. New York: Guilford Press. 2012.

Uzuntarla Y, Ugrak U, Cihangiroglu N. Analysis of relationship between trait anxiety and assertiveness. The Journal of International Social Research 2016;9:1704–11.

Yılmaz IA, Dursun S, Guzeler EG, Pektas K. Determining on anxiety level of university students: a case study. Electronic Journal of Vocational Colleges 2014;4:16–26.

Oner N, Le Compte A. Durumluk-surekli kaygi envanteri el kitabı. İstanbul: Bogazici Matbaasi; 1983.

Uzuntarla Y, Cihangiroglu N, Ceyhan S, Eroglu M. The analysis on relationship between trait anxiety and socio-demographic characteristics of university students. The Journal of International Education Science 2015;2:156–69.

Vitasari P, Abdul Wahab MN, Othman A, Herawan T, Sinnadurai SK. The relationship between study anxiety and

academic performance among engineering students. The Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 2010;8:490–7.

Mazzone L, Ducci F, Scoto MC, Passaniti E, D’Arrigo VG, Vitiello B. The role of anxiety symptoms in school performance in a community sample of children and adolescents. BMC Public Health 2007;7:347.

Bati H, Tetik C, Gurpinar E. Assessment of the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation of the study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci 2010;30:1639–46.

Biggs J, Kember D, Leung DY. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. Br J Educ Psychol 2001;71:133–49.

Onder İ, Besoluk S. Adaptation of revise two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) to Turkish. Education and Science 2010;35:55–67.

Spielberger C, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. STAI manual for state-trait inventory. CA: Consulting Psychologist Press; 1970.

Yılmaz MB, Orhan F. The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the study process questionnaire. Education and Science 2011;36:69–83.

Kanadlı S, Akbas A. The relationship between pre-services science teachers’ epistemological beliefs, learning approaches and UPE scores. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education 2015;11:116–31.

Ciftci M, Ozan C. Analysis of approaches to learning preferences and perceptions of learning of students in faculty of education. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction 2013;3:55–66.

Shah DK, Yadav RL, Sharma D, et al. Learning approach among health sciences students in a medical college in Nepal: a cross-sectional study. Adv Med Educ Pract 2016;7:137–43.

Tiwari A, Chan S, Wong E, et al. The effect of problem-based learning on students’ approaches to learning in the context of clinical nursing education. Nurse Educ Today 2006;26:430–8.

Olpak YZ, Korucu AT. Investigation of the relation between candidate teachers’ approaches to learning and locus of control. Educational Technology Theory and Practice 2014;4:77–91.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

The Official Journal of Paramedics Australasia © 2018                           ISSN: 2202-7270