Emergency medical technicians who provide emergency care for patients in a critical condition often experience compassion satisfaction through assisting these patients. However, helping ill and injured patients can also lead to compassion fatigue. Identifying the link between compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue is important to enhance patient care.
This is a descriptive correlation study. A total of 248 pre-hospital emergency personnel from pre-hospital emergency centres in East Azarbaijan, Iran, were selected by cluster sampling. Professional quality of life tools, including compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue (occupational burnout, secondary traumatic stress) were employed. Data was modeled on Stata Statistical Software: Release 14, and the correlation between factors was investigated through Pearson and Canonical correlation analyses.
The average scores of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue were moderate. Reverse relationship and mean negative correlation (r=-0.40) were obtained between the two areas. In the ‘compassion fatigue’ category, the secondary traumatic stress sub-scale had a higher focal load (0.96) in comparison to burnout (0.32). Education, workplace and workload were significantly correlated with compassion fatigue, as were marital status and workplace with compassion satisfaction.
The model indicated that compassion satisfaction correlates inversely with compassion fatigue. Workplace, workload reduction, marital status and educational promotion reduce compassion fatigue therefore to enhance pre-hospital care these factors should be taken into consideration.
Hunsaker S, Chen HC, Maughan D, Heaston S. Factors that influence the development of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in emergency department nurses. J Nurs Scholarsh 2015;47:186-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12122
Gómez-Gutiérrez MM, Bernaldo-de-Quirós M, Piccini AT, Cerdeira JC. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology in pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives: importance of severity and experience of the aggression. J Interpers Violence 2016;31:339-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514555370
Moshtagh Eshgh Z, Peyman A, Amirkhani A, Taghinejad F. The relationship between occupational stresses with job burnout in pre-hospital emergency staff. Jorjani Biomedicine Journal 2014;241-33.
Donnelly EA, Chonody J, Campbell D. Measuring chronic stress in the emergency medical services. J Workplace Behav Health 2014;29:333-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/15555240.2014.965824
Bernaldo-De-Quirós M, Piccini AT, Gómez MM, Cerdeira JC. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey. Int J Nurs Stud2015;52:260-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.05.011
Mikkola R, Paavilainen E, Salminen‐Tuomaala M, Leikkola P. Out‐of‐hospital emergency care providers’ work and challenges in a changing care environment. Scand J Caring Sci 2018;32:253-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12456
Doohan I, Saveman B-I. Need for compassion in prehospital and emergency care: a qualitative study on bus crash survivors’ experiences. Int Emerg Nurs 2015;23:115-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2014.08.008
Klingle K, Russell-Mayhew S, Kassan A, Moules N. By the water’s edge: a hermeneutic look at suffering and self-compassion in counselling psychology. Int J Adv Couns 2018;1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-018-9322-6
Schooley B, Hikmet N, Tarcan M, Yorgancioglu G. Comparing burnout across emergency physicians, nurses, technicians, and health information technicians working for the same organization. Medicine 2016;95(10). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002856
Guastello S, Frampton SB. Patient-centered care retreats as a method for enhancing and sustaining compassion in action in healthcare settings. J Compassionate Health Care 2014;1:2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-014-0002-z
Lown BA, Muncer SJ, Chadwick R. Can compassionate healthcare be measured? The Schwartz Center Compassionate Care Scale™. Patient Educ Counse 2015;98:1005-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.03.019
Cocker F, Joss N. Compassion fatigue among healthcare, emergency and community service workers: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13:618. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060618
Joinson C. Coping with compassion fatigue. Nursing. 1992;22:116-20.
Owen RP, Wanzer L. Compassion fatigue in military healthcare teams. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2014;28:2-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2013.09.007
Bush NJ. Compassion fatigue: Are you at risk? Oncol Nurs Forum 2009;36:24. doi: 10.1188/09.ONF.24-28
Drury V, Craigie M, Francis K, Aoun S, Hegney DG. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: phase 2 results. J Nurs Manage 2014;22:519-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12168
Craig CD, Sprang G. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in a national sample of trauma treatment therapists. Anxiety Stress Coping 2010;23:319-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800903085818
Wang S, Liu Y, Wang L. Nurse burnout: personal and environmental factors as predictors. Int J Nurs Pract 2015;21:78-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12216
Sprang G, Clark JJ, Whitt-Woosley A. Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout: factors impacting a professional’s quality of life. J Loss Trauma 2007;12:259-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020701238093
Yu H, Jiang A, Shen J. Prevalence and predictors of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2016;57:28-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.012
Smith SW, Braun J, Portelli i, et al. prehospital Indicators for Disaster Preparedness and Response: New York City Emergency Medical Services in Hurricane Sandy. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2016;10:333-43. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2015.175
Hinderer KA, VonRueden KT, Friedmann E, et al. Burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses. J Trauma Nurs 2014;21:160-9. doi: 10.1097/JTN.0000000000000055
Duffy E, Avalos G, Dowling M. Secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study. Int Emerg Nurs 2015;23:53-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2014.05.001
Dutton MA, Rubinstein FL. Working with people with PTSD: research implications. In: CR Figley, editor. Brunner/Mazel psychological stress series, No. 23. Compassion fatigue: coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. Brunner/Mazel 1995; 82-100.
Khashaba EO, El-Sherif MAF, Ibrahim AA-W, Neatmatallah MA. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS) in Mansoura city. Indian J Community Med 2014;39:103. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.132733
Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Guilford Publications; 2015.
Schreiber JB, Nora A, Stage FK, Barlow EA, King J. Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: a review. J Educ Res 2006;99:323-38. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.99.6.323-338
Cicognani E, Pietrantoni L, Palestini L, Prati G. Emergency workers’ quality of life: the protective role of sense of community, efficacy beliefs and coping strategies. Soc Indic Res 2009;94:449. doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9441-x
Zaidi SMIH, Yaqoob N, Saeed H. Compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress burnout among rescuers. Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar-Pakistan) 2017;31(3).
Dasan S, Gohil P, Cornelius V, Taylor C. Prevalence, causes and consequences of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue in emergency care: a mixed-methods study of UK NHS consultants. Emerg Med J 2015;32:588-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2014-203671
Jarrad R, Hammad S, Shawashi T, Mahmoud N. Compassion fatigue and substance use among nurses. Ann Gen Psychiatry 2018;17:13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-018-0183-5
França SPdS, De Martino MMF, Aniceto EVdS, Silva LL. Predictors of burnout syndrome in nurses in the prehospital emergency services. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem 2012;25:68-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002012000100012
Jonsson A, Segesten K, Mattsson B. Post-traumatic stress among Swedish ambulance personnel. Emerg Med J 2003;20:79-84. https://emj.bmj.com/content/emermed/20/1/79.full.pdf
Sacco TL, Ciurzynski SM, Harvey ME, Ingersoll GL. Compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue among critical care nurses. Crit Care Nurse 2015;35:32-42. doi: 10.4037/ccn2015392
Jakimowicz S, Perry L, Lewis J. Compassion satisfaction and fatigue: a cross-sectional survey of Australian intensive care nurses. Aust Crit Care 2018;31:396-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2017.10.003