Challenges of scene management in traffic collisions from the perspective of road emergency responders in East Azerbaijan, Iran


Scene Management, Road Traffic Accidents, Emergency

How to Cite

Babaie J, Mostafanejad R, Ali Janati A, Sadeghi-Bazargani H. Challenges of scene management in traffic collisions from the perspective of road emergency responders in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine [Internet]. 2021Mar.1 [cited 2022Jan.25];18. Available from:



Thousands of traffic collisions occur each year on Iran’s roads. This study aimed to investigate the challenges of scene management in road traffic collisions in the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran.


Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed by content coding and merging. Subcategories and themes were then extracted after integrating similar codes. Participants were selected using the purposive sampling method, and interviews continued until data saturation was reached.


Twenty participants were interviewed; nine categories were extracted from the collected data: infrastructure problems, lack of responders’ preparedness, triage challenges, deficiencies and limitations, management of special (hazardous) incidents, communication problems with casualties, lack of coordination, lack of psychosocial support from responders, and cultural and social challenges.


Each traffic collision requires an immediate and effective response; however, this involves several challenges as its process is an inter-sectoral issue. The major challenge is the lack of coordination among different responders. Accordingly, these challenges need to be addressed by developing a comprehensive plan, designing a leading organisation, and developing a comprehensive trauma system.


Másilková M. Health and social consequences of road traffic accidents. Kontakt 2017;19:e43-7.

Larsson EM, Martensson NL, Alexanderson KAE. First-aid training and bystander actions at traffic crashes - a population study. Prehosp Disaster Med 2002;17:134-41.

World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety: time for action [Internet]. Available at:;jsessionid=486DF185FD6F32FA6E04A1238A52ACEA?sequence=1 [Accessed 8 January 2021].

WHO. Road traffic injuries. [Internet]. Available at: [Accessed September 2018].

Bakhtiyari M, Mehmandar MR, Riahi SM, et al. Epidemiologic pattern of fatal traffic injuries among Iranian drivers; 2004-2010. Iran J Public Health 2016;45:503-14.

Iranian Legal Medicine Organisation. Necrology and injuries from traffic accidents referral to the Iranian Legal Medicine Organisation [Internet]. Available at: [Accessed 30 June 2015].

Soltani G, Ahmadi B, Pourreza A, Rahimi A. Investigating prevalence of deaths from traffic accidents and factors associated with it in Yazd in 2009. SSU Journals 2014;21:831-9.

Kardgr I, Nodehi, Rahmati Nodehi R, Fazel Hashemi MT. Investigating the role of traffic in managing the scene of road accidents and its impact on the insurance industry. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 2014;3:729-38.

Khorasani-Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Mohammadi R, et al. Post-crash management of road traffic injury victims in Iran. Stakeholders' views on current barriers and potential facilitators. Injury Prevention 2012;18(Suppl1):A209-10.

Sabouri E, Naderi MM, Saburie O, Mohammadi Y, Tavakkoli F. The evaluation of prehospital emergency performance indicators in Birjand, 2015. IJEC 2017;1:61-8.

Amiri MSH, Khankeh HR, Momeni A, Ayni A. Factors affecting the management of the scene accident: a grounded theory study in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Journal of Management Studies 2014;3:11-30.

Esmaeili AR, Zahiri M. Evaluation of the role of the traffic police in the management of the scene of road accidents: a case study: Ardabil province. Traffic Management Studies Quarterly 2010;5:1-24.

John S, Peter N, Aan MS, Ghaitrie M. Traffic incident and disaster management in the Netherlands: challenges and obstacles in information sharing. Networks and Communication Studies 2012;26:169-200.

Hsieh HF. three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res 2005;15:1277-88.

Meng Q, Weng J. Uncertainty analysis of accident notification time and emergency medical service response time in work zone traffic accidents. Traffic Injury Prevention 2013;14:150-8.

Fitzgerald M, Dewan Y, O'Relly G, Mathew J, MCkenna C. India and management of road crashes. Towards a national trauma system. Indian J Surg 2006;68:226-32.

Bjornstig U. Pre-hospital emergency care in Sweden-with special emphasis on care of traffic victim. Transport and emergency medical response system. ITASS Research 2004;28:24-31

Goats TJ, Davis G. Prehospital care for traffic causalities. BMJ 2002;234:1135-8.

Saburie ENMM, Saburie O, Mohammadi Y, Tavakkoli F. The evaluation of prehospital emergency performance indicators in Birjand, 2015. Iranian Journal of Emergency Care 2017;1:61-8.

Elmqvist C, Brunt D, Fridlund B, Ekebergh M. Being first on the scene of accident–experiences of ‘doing 'prehospital emergency care. Scand J Caring Sci 2010;24:266-73.

Khankeh HR, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Masoumi G. Why the prominent improvement in prehospital medical response in Iran couldn't decrease the number of death related road traffic injuries? J Trauma Treat 2012;1:e103.

Mohammadi M, Martiniuk ALC, Ansari-Moghaddam A, et al. Police response time to road crashes in south-east of Iran. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63:1523-7.

Soori H, Ainy E, Movahedinejad A, et al. A practical model of political mapping in road traffic injury in Iran in 2008. Hakim Research Journal 2009;12:1-9.

Andersson AD, Carlstrom E, Ahgren BM, Berlin J. Managing boundaries at the accident scene–a qualitative study of collaboration exercises. International Journal of Emergency Services 2014;3:77-94.