Psychological and social wellbeing of paramedics in Riyadh City during the COVID-19 pandemic


psychological wellbeing
social wellbeing
Saudi Arabia

How to Cite

Alqahtani A, Alqahtani S, Alhodaib A, Daoulah A, Mobarad A, Alhamid S, Alhazmi R. Psychological and social wellbeing of paramedics in Riyadh City during the COVID-19 pandemic. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine [Internet]. 2021Aug.29 [cited 2023Feb.6];18. Available from:



Our research sought to assess the psychological and social wellbeing of paramedics in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia during the COVID 19 pandemic. It also aimed to assess the therapeutic assistance provided to pre-hospital care givers during the pandemic.


In this quantitative cross-sectional analysis an assessment of 106 paramedics was undertaken from data obtained from 28 September to 10 November 2020. The authenticity and durability of Pilot and the Cronbach have been added.


Of the 106 paramedics surveyed, 60 (56.6%) were 30–39 years of age; 101 were male (95.3%). The mean average psychological wellbeing of the paramedics was 6.41 with the standard deviation of 2.42. Family and friends’ average social support score was 9.2 in norm 2.6 deviation.


Our study showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic paramedics suffered from social and psychological depression. Paramedics must be protected from the socioeconomic and psychological difficulties they face every day in order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.


Zhang W, Wang K, Yin L, et al. Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom 2020;89:242-50. doi: 10.1159/000507639.

Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020;382:970-1. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001468.

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e203976.

Khattab E, Sabbagh A, Aljerian N, et al. Emergency medicine in Saudi Arabia: a century of progress and a bright vision for the future. Int J Emerg Med 2019;12:16.

Chersich MF, Gray G, Fairlie L, et al. COVID-19 in Africa: care and protection for frontline healthcare workers. Global Health 2020;16:46.

Liu X, Kakade M, Fuller C, et al. Depression after exposure to stressful events: lessons learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Compr Psychiatry 2012;53:15-23.

Lee S, Kang W, Cho A, et al. Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. ibid. 2018;87:123-7.

Wu P, Fang Y, Guan Z. The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Can J Psychiatry 2009;54:302-11.

Dutta: Supporting mental health and resilience in frontline COVID-19 (coronavirus) health care workers. 2020. Available at:

Worldometer. Saudi Arabia Coronavirus cases. 2020. Available at:

World Health Organization. Saudi Arabia situation. 2020. Available at:

Abolfotouh MA, Almutairi AF, Ala’a AB, Hussein MA. Perception and attitude of healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia with regard to Covid-19 pandemic and potential associated predictors. BMC Infect Dis 2020;20;1-10.

World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Available at:

Nickell L, Crighton EJ, Tracy CS, et al. Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: survey of a large tertiary care institution. Can Med Assoc J 2004;170:793-8.

Alharthy N, Alswaes S, Almaziad A, et al. Public perception of female paramedics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia. Int J Emerg Med 2018;11:57

Alahdal H, Basingab F, Alotaibi R. An analytical study on the awareness, attitude and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health 2020;13:1446-52.

Donnelly EA, Bennett M. Development of a critical incident stress inventory for the emergency medical services. Traumatology 2014;20:1-8.

Shahzad F, Du J, Khan I, Fateh A, et al. Perceived threat of COVID-19 contagion and frontline paramedics’ agonistic behaviour: employing a stressor-strain-outcome perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:5102.

Natasha S, Mansoor AD, Junaid R. Physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: a scoping review. Int J Emerg Med 2020;13(1).

Ho CS, Chee CY, Ho RC. Mental health strategies to combat the psychological impact of COVID-19 beyond paranoia and panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2020;49:1-3.

Hayes C, Corrie I, Graham Y. Paramedic emotional labour during COVID-19. Journal of Paramedic Practice 2020;12:319-23.

Lu Y, Shu B, Chang Y, et al. The mental health of hospital workers dealing with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Psychother Psychosom 2006;75:370-5.

Robertson E, Hershenfield K, Grace S, et al. The psychosocial effects of being quarantined following exposure to SARS: a qualitative study of Toronto health care workers. Can J Psychiatry 2004;49:403-7.

Halpern J, Gurevich M, Schwartz B, Brazeau P. What makes an incident critical for ambulance workers? Emotional outcomes and implications for intervention. Work Stress 2009;23:173-89.

Gallagher S, McGilloway S. Living in critical times: the impact of critical incidents on frontline ambulance personnel - a qualitative perspective. Int J Emerg Ment Health 2007;9:215-23.

Avraham N, Goldblatt H, Yafe E. Paramedics' experiences and coping strategies when encountering critical incidents. Qual Health Res 2014;24:194-208.

Goyal K, Chauhan P, Chhikara K, Gupta P, Singh MP. Fear of COVID 2019: first suicidal case in India. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;49:e101989

Sigala M. Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. J Bus Res 2020;117:312-21.

Gu J, Yan H, Huang Y, et al. Comparing containment measures among nations by epidemiological effects of COVID-19. Natl Sci Rev 2020;7:1847-51.

Vindrola-Padros C, Andrews L, Dowrick A, et al. Perceptions and experiences of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. BMJ Open 2020;10:1-8.