Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices

Brett Williams, Andrys Onsman, Ted Brown


Factor analysis is a multivariate statistical approach commonly used in psychology, education, and more recently in the health-related professions. This paper will attempt to provide novice researchers with a simplified approach to undertaking exploratory factor analysis (EFA). As the paramedic body of knowledge continues to grow, indeed into scale and instrument psychometrics, it is timely that an uncomplicated article such as this be offered to the paramedic readership both nationally and internationally. Factor analysis is an important tool that can be used in the development, refinement, and evaluation of tests, scales, and measures that can be used in education and clinical contexts by paramedics. The objective of the paper is to provide an exploratory factor analysis protocol, offering potential researchers with an empirically-supported systematic approach that simplifies the many guidelines and options associated with completing EFA.


confirmatory factor analysis; exploratory factor analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33151/ajp.8.3.93


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